What is SMPS and how does it work?


Do you know what is SMPS (What is SMPS in english)? Everyone uses a computer in today’s world, whether it is a desktop or a laptop, but there are different parts inside it, so those parts need electricity, but this electricity is much less than what we use in our home, like Talk about TV, FRIDGE, IRON, OVEN Vagera, all of them use Direct 220V-240V, but if we direct this voltage to the parts of the computer, then everything will burn, so how much power does the computer need, I will tell you today How is the voltage controlled inside the computer and what is it, so let’s know what is SMPS.

SMPS What is SMPS ?

The full name of SMPS is Switch Mode Power Supply. This is an Electronic Circuit, if you buy separately for Desktop, then you will get some square shape box, the same is SMPS, it gives power to different parts of the Device Computer such as RAM, Motherboard, Fan. By the way, electricity goes from MotherBoard to different parts.

Now we know a little about its work, so when it is first given to the computer from the main power supply means the board of the house, then it first stays in the form of AC (Alternative CURRENT) after that when it is the SMPS of the AC computer. When near, this SMPS converts it to DC, for this it uses capacitor and DIODE, it switches the switch sometimes ON and sometimes OFF with the help of regulator, means it changes the switch mode, sometimes DC to AC. It converts and sometimes AC into DC, hence its name is also called Switch Mode Power Supply. Now you know what is Switch Mode Power Supply.

How SMPS Works

What is SMPS in Hindi So first of all, the cable that comes to the current computer, then it first goes through the small device inside the SMPS, then first goes to the AC filter, there in the process of doing AC filter. NTC, Fuse, Line Filter, PF Capacitor are used in between Nutral and Phase, its output is given to Rectifier and Filter, which converts it from AC to DC which was Rectifier and which was filter. Converts into Smooth DC with the help of capacitor, the output of this process is Pure DC and it was given to the switching transistor, here we use two NPN transistors, which with the help of switching cycle again gives an AC output. , we give this to do one more process whose name was SM transformer so it was a matter of PRIMARY CIRCUIT of SMPS, after this it is given once more to Rectifier and Filter, which again it is given to this AC Supply and Once converts into Smooth DC (remember one thing that the current coming from the transformer in the house) So it is AC and the current that comes in the battery is DC) The output that comes out after this action is in three forms, a 12VOLT, 5 VOLT, 3 VOLT. This is the primary and secondary circuit of SMPS.

But the Rectifier and Filter of the primary circuit would be connected with an Output Starter transfermer and it would be connected with another Amlifier IC and it had three output wires, the amplifier IC is an area of ​​SMPS where There is complete management work on pay. Three Major Cables come out from the Amlifier IC, one is Green which is Power on Cable, the second comes in Violet color which gives stand by current of +5 volt, and the third one which comes in Gray color, which is called Power Bood cable. It is said.

These three Output Cables are given to MotherBoard. Switching transistor and amplifier IC is connected with a driver and it is controlled through amplifier IC. A sensing wire comes from the secondary switching circuit, which tells the Amplifier IC that the load is increasing, while at the same time the DRIVER which increases the SWITCHING Transiter on-off process, and which keeps getting the voltage at a constant speed. Which is +12volt, +5volt and +3volt and this process is called switching mode power supply. When the green cable is powered on, the MotherBoard gets 12v, 5v, and 3v from the SMPS. This is how SMPS works.


What is Direct Current and Alternative Current By the way, current means Flow Of Charge. These are of two types

1. Direct Current
2. Alternative Current

In Alternate Current, the flow of charge happens in both directions, here from positive to negative and from negative to positive, but if we talk about direct current, then its flow is only in one direction, that is from negative to positive. . A good example of this is the battery you use in your TV and watch, where DC current comes out from the battery. Let us understand a little better that the electricity that comes to your house is an example of Alternate Current and the battery in the remote is the Direct Current if our computer needs DC Current, so to convert the Alternative Current into DC, which is the device. What is used is your SMPS.

Types of SMPS

1. DC to DC Converter
2. Forward Converter
3. Flyback Converter
4. Self-Oscillating Flyback Converter

1. DC to DC Converter
This is a type of SMPS Converter in which you just, the current that comes to the SMPS is AC, before converting it into DC, the current which passes through the DC Converter first passes through the primary side of the Step Down Transformer. , this step down transfermer is a part of SMPS which is of 50 Hz, this voltage goes to the secondary part of the rectified and filter hook transfermer, now it comes out from the output voltage power and is transported to different parts. . The output of this is sent back to the switch once more. To control the voltage.

2. Forward Converter
This is also a converter that takes the current through a choke, whether the transistor does its work or not. When the transistor is completely closed, then this work is done by the diode. So for this reason, the energy that goes inside the load is at the time of both off and on, but keeps the choke energy, at the time of ON period and sends some energy to the output load.

3. Flyback Converter
In this flyback converter, the magnetic field of the inductor stores energy when the switch is on. When the switch is in the on position, the power output is empty in the voltage circuit. Duty Cycle determines the output voltage. That is its job.

4. Self-Oscillating Flyback Converter
This is the easiest and most basic converter that works on Flyback. At the time of conduction, the switching transistor increases primarily linearly according to a slope from the transfer, which is Vin/Lp.

Depending on the type of SMPS used
The type of power supply depends on its size and usage. Its types are AT SMPS, ATx SMPS, Baby SMPS. But mostly AT and ATx are used more.

Here the full form of AT SMPS is Advance Technology SMPS, and the full name of ATx SMPS is Advance Technology Extended SMPS.

SMPS Connectors
1. 20+4 Pin ATX
This is a MotherBoard Connector, this connector gives the charge of MotherBoard +12 Volt. This connector uses AT SMPS 20 and ATX SMPS 24 Pin. A 24 pin connector and a 24 pin motherboard are used.

2. CPU4+4 Pin Connector
This connector is needed for the CPU which uses 4 pins which are all of 12v and there is a connector named, SATA Power Connector.

3. SATA Power Connector
Computers have Hard Disk and DVD ROM, this Power Connector gives them power. This was some information about the power connector of SMPS. This is a 4 pin connector.

How will SMPS be in the future

Going forward, there will be more special SMPS which can convert the voltage well and can be done easily. Going ahead on these few things given below will be taken care of.

  • can give more output
  • Can take more voltage and output less voltage
  • power capacity can be increased
  • Switching mode to work faster

my final verdict

So friends, you must have liked today’s information very much, I hope this information is useful to you and if you do hardware repair, then you are more beneficial, by the way, you have become capable of what SMPS is. is SMPS in Hindi) If you can answer this question, with this SMPS has a big contribution in our computer, you also got to know how this device works, with the help of Switch Mode Power Supply Technology, it is even smaller. It is being made so that it can be installed in more small devices, if you still want to ask any question, then definitely write in the comment box below and subscribe to our blog, Jai Hind Thank you.