What is programming and its types

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programming

  what is computer programming  


Computer programming languages ​​allow us (users) to give instructions to the computer in a language that the computer understands.

Just as we humans have such a variety of human-based languages, in the same way there are many types of computer programming languages ​​so that they communicate with the computer. You probably also know that the part of the language that the computer understands is called binary“.

The conversion of programming language into binary is called “compiling”. All languages, whether it is C language or Python, all have their own distinct features, although they also have many commonalities with them.

These languages ​​allow computers to handle large processes and complex information quickly and efficiently.

  What is System Programming?  


System programming in hindi is called programming which is used for writing and designing computer programs. It allows computer hardware to be interfaced with the programmer and the user, while allowing the application to be executed effectively in a computer system.

System programming is used to develop computer system software that manages and controls computer operations.

Classification of Programming Languages
Therefore it is very important that you understand the classification of Basic Programming languages.

What is DBMS and what is its function
what is compiler
Programming languages ​​are broadly classified into three categories:

1. MACHINE LANGUAGES


These languages ​​are closest to Computer Hardware. Every unique computer has a unique machine language. A machine language program is made up of a series of binary patterns (eg, 010011100) that represent simple operations that a computer can easily accomplish (for example, adding two operands, adding data to a memory location). move etc.).

Machine language programs are executable, which means that they can be easily run directly. If one wants to write a program in Machine Language, then he can do so, but for this the programmer will have to memorize many binary codes which is very difficult in favor of a human being.

2. ASSEMBLY LANGUAGES


The only purpose of bringing it was how to make programming easier for humans. In this machine language instructions have been replaced by the use of simple pneumonic abbreviations (eg, ADD, MOV). Therefore assembly languages ​​are also unique for a specific computer (machine).

In this, before execution, an assembly language program requires translation into machine language. This translation is accomplished by a computer program called Assembler. Assemblers are written for all unique machine languages.

3. HIGH-LEVEL LANGUAGES


High-level languages, such as C, C++, JAVA, etc., all appear to be English-like, so they become easier for programmers to “think” according to the programming language. Translation is required in high-level languages ​​only before execution in machine language.

This translation is accomplished either by a compiler or an interpreter. Compilers translate the complete source code before program execution. (Eg: C++, Java)

Interpreters translate source code programs one line at a time. (Eg: Python) Interpreters are more interactive than compilers.

A List of All Programming Languages


Different languages ​​have different purposes, so it is very important to know about all the different languages, let’s know about some types:-

1. Machine languages, they are directly interpreted by hardware.

2. Assembly languages, these are thin wrappers over a corresponding machine language.

3. High-level languages, all of them are machine-independent.

4. System languages, they are designed to write low-level tasks, such as memory and process management.

5. Scripting languages, these are generally extremely high-level and powerful.

6. Domain-specific languages, used only in highly special-purpose areas

7. Visual languages, these are non-text based languages.

8. Esoteric languages, they are not for use but they are very interesting, funny, and educational in some directions.

These types are not mutually exclusive: Perl is both high-level and scripting; C is considered both high-level and system.

types of programming languages


If you want to look at the general in a basic way then there are two types of programming language:-

1. Low level
2. High level

Low level is called that which only the machine understands, these are minor, easy and fast conversions, because the computer understands these languages ​​(0 and 1). Assembly language which is low level, it can be easily converted into machine language with the help of assembler.

Whereas high level is called that which is understood by humans and it is written in English language, and the machine has to convert it into its own language. (C language is a high level language and it needs compilers for conversions)

By the way, the computer needs some functions to convert the high level language to the low level language, such as compiler, interpreter etc.

What is the Characteristics of Programming Language


Let us know about some characteristics of programming languages ​​which should be in a better programming language.

1. A programming language should be very simple, easy to learn and use, along with its good readability and easily recognizable by humans.

2. Abstraction should be an essential characteristic of any programming language, which should have the ability to define complex structure easily and also its degree of usability should be easy.

3. A portable programming language is always preferred by everyone.

4. The efficiency of programming language should be very high so that it can be easily converted into a machine code and also executed. Also it consumes less space in memory.

5. A programming language should always be well structured and documented so that it is more suitable in application development.

6. All the necessary tools, whether for development, debugging, testing, or maintenance of the program, should be provided to all through a programming language.

7. A programming language single environment called Integrated Development Environment (IDE) should be provided.

8. A programming language should be very consistent in terms of syntax and semantics.

Complete knowledge about computer programming


By the way, the list of programming languages ​​used right now is very long. But I have tried to give some information below in contact with all the important programming languages, so that you can first know what these programming languages ​​are, where they are useful and whether you should learn them or not.

Complete information about Python


Python is an advanced programming language that is interpreted, object-oriented and built in flexible and robust semantics.

Who uses Python?


1. Professions and Industries:

Python developers, software engineers, back-end developers, Python programmers
It is also used by other employers such as information technology, engineering, professional services and design.
2. Major Organizations Where Python is Used: Google, Pinterest, Instagram, YouTube, DropBox, NASA, ESRI

3. Specializations and industries that make full use of Python: in Web and Internet development (frameworks, micro-frameworks and advanced content management systems), scientific and numeric computing; In desktop graphical user interfaces (GUIs) etc.

Why is learning Python so important?


Python helps you to integrate systems to work very quickly according to a scripting or glue language. Also it is very useful in Rapid Application Develop (RAD).

• The entire internal logic of many games is based on this, along with AI is also implemented.
• NASA also uses Python in its Integrated Planning System according to a standard scripting language.
Features of Python
1. It is very simple to learn and also to read.

2. It contains associated web frameworks from which many web-based applications can be developed.

3. Free interpreter and standard library are available in source or binary for major platforms.

When and where did Python start?


Python was developed in the late 1980s in CWI, Netherlands and together it was first released to the public in 1991.

Full details of JAVA
Java is a general-purpose, object-oriented, high-level programming language that also has many features that make it ideal for web-based development.

Who uses JAVA?


• Professions and Industries:
o Software engineers, Java developers
o It is mostly used by employers who are from different fields such as communications, education, finance, health sciences, hospitality, retail and utilities.

• Major organizations that use Java: V2COM, Eclipse Information Technologies, eBay, Eurotech

• Where they are used more: They are used more in specializations and industries, along with they have many applications in Internet of Things (IoT), Enterprise Architecture, Cloud Computing etc.

Why Programmers Need to Learn JAVA


Java is primarily used to develop enterprise-level applications, including video games and mobile apps, and to create web-based applications from JSP (Java Server Pages).

When it is used online, Java allows applets to be downloaded and used through a browser, thereby performing a function that is not normally available.

• Programs that are written or used in Java are the main ones: – Adobe Creative Suite, Eclipse, Lotus Notes, Minecraft and OpenOffice.

• Java is a core foundation to develop Android Apps.

What are the features of Java


There is application portability
Robust and interpreted language
It has a very extensive network library.
Where did JAVA originate?
Originally it is called Oak, Java was first developed in 1990 by Sun Microsystems, whose original purpose was to add some capabilities to the C++ language.

Java was developed keeping in mind a basic principle which is WORA (Write Once Run Anywhere) which means write once and use it anywhere. This language was introduced to the public in the year 1995 and now Oracle owns it.

Complete information about HTML (HyperText Markup Language)
HTML is a standard markup language used to create web pages; This ensures proper formatting of text and images (using tags) so that Internet browsers display them as they want them to appear.

Who Uses HTML?


• Professions and Industries:

Web developers, technical editors, email designers, software engineers
They are used by employers in Information Technology, Engineering, Design, Professional Services, Management, Marketing, Customer Services and Sales.

Major Organizations Where They Are Used: Apple, CyberCoders, Apex Systems, CareerBuilder

• Specializations and Industries where HTML is used the most: Web Development, Email Programming

Why is learning HTML so important?


Using HTML to create electronic documents (pages) and display them online. You can view any page you want and you can see the HTML in action.

Talking about the current sites, then the structure and appearance of their diversity and complexity can be made possible through HTML.

What are the Features
o It is very easy to learn.
o It is free and accessible.
o It is also available in Multiple versions.
When and where did HTML start?
HTML was created by physicist Tim Berners-Lee in 1990, which allows scientists to share documents online. Earlier all communication was sent in plain text only. HTML made it possible to have “rich” text (i.e. text formatting and visual images).

Complete knowledge of JavaScript
JavaScript is a client-side programming language that runs within a client browser and processes commands in a computer and not in a server. This is most commonly done in an HTML or ASP file. It may have Java in its name but it is not related to Java in any way.

Who uses JavaScript?


• Professions and Industries:
o JavaScript developers, Web developers, software engineers
o It is used by employers in the Information Technology, Engineering, Design, Marketing, Finance and Healthcare industries.

• Major Organizations from where it is used: WordPress, Soundcloud, Khan Academy, Linkedin, Groupon, Yahoo and many more.

• Specializations and Industries where JavaScript is used the most: Front End Website Development, Gaming Development etc.

Why is it so important to learn JavaScript?


JavaScript is mainly used in web development to manipulate various page elements and make them more dynamic, to include scrolling abilities, to print time and date, to create a calendar. For and other such tasks which are not possible through plain HTML. It is also used to create games and APIs.

• What are the features of JavaScript:
o It is very easy to learn its basic features.
There are multiple frameworks.
o Users can easily take reference of JQuery, which is a comprehensive Javascript library.

Who and less started JavaScript?
JavaScript was designed by Netscape and its original name was LiveScript, which later became JavaScript in 1995.

Complete information about C language
C language is a structure-oriented, middle-level programming language that is mostly used to develop low-level applications.

Who uses it?
• Professions and Industries:
o It is often used by software developers, computer engineers, business and systems analysts, IT and web content administrators, embedded software engineers.
o It is used by employers of other domains such as Information Technology, Engineering, Management, Healthcare and Professional Services

• Major organizations that use it: Microsoft, Apple, Oracle, Cisco, Raytheon

• Specializations and Industries where C Language is used more: Embedded Systems, Systems Programming, Artificial Intelligence, Industrial Automation, Computer Graphics, Space Research, Image Processing and Game Programming.

Why is it important to learn C language?
C language is used to develop systems applications that are used to integrate with other operating systems such as Windows, UNIX and Linux, as well as embedded softwares. Applications use graphics packages, word processors, spreadsheets, operating system development, database systems, compilers, assemblers, network drivers and interpreters.

• Facebook’s TAO systems are fully programmed from C language.

• C language is used to develop most device drivers.

• Features of C language:

It is very easy to learn it; Because it has only 32 keywords to master.
Using this it is very easy to write systems programs such as compilers and interpreters.
This is a Foundational language for beginners.

When and where was C language started?
C Language was developed in 1972 in Bell Labs. It was mainly made to be implemented in the UNIX system only. Later it eventually gave birth to very advanced programming languages, such as C++, Java C#, JavaScript and Pearl.

Complete knowledge of C++
C ++ is a general purpose, object-oriented, middle-level programming language and it is an extension of C language, so it is possible to code this language in C style. In some situations, coding can be done in some format, which makes C++ a hybrid language.

Who uses C++?
• Professions and Industries:
o Used by C++ software engineers, C++ software developers, embedded engineers, programmer analysts.
o It is used by employers in many different fields such as Information Technology, Engineering, Professional Services, Design, Quality Control and Management

• Major Company and Organization Users: They are used more in many organizations such as Google, Mozilla, Firefox, Winamp, Adobe Software, Amazon, Lockheed Martin.

• Specializations: They are also used in System/Application Software, Drivers, Client-Server Applications, Embedded Firmware.

Why is it important to learn C++?
The C++ language is used to create computer programs and packaged software, such as games, office applications, graphics, video editors and operating systems.

• Blackberry OS has been developed completely using C++.

• In addition, the new Microsoft Office suite has also been developed from C++.

• What are the features of C++:
o This is the first programming language that is taught at the college level.
o There is quick processing and compilation mechanism.
o It has Robust standard library (STL).

When and where did C++ start?
It was released in 1983 and is often considered to be an object-oriented version of C language, C++ is created to compile lean, efficient code while it provides high-level abstractions. To manage large development projects exclusively.

Complete knowledge of PHP (Hypertext Preprocessor)
PHP is an open-source scripting language designed to create dynamic web pages that can work effectively with databases. It is also used as a general-purpose programming language.

Who uses PHP?
• Professions and Industries:
o PHP developers, PHP software engineers
o It is also used in other industries such as Information Technology, Engineering, Design, Professional Services, Healthcare, Management and Finance.

• Major Organizations That Use It: Facebook, Yahoo, CyberCoders, NextGen

• Specializations where PHP is most commonly used: Web Application Development, Server-Side Scripting, Command Line Scripting

Why is it so important to learn PHP?
PHP is primarily used with dynamic data-heavy websites to collect form data. It is also used in app development to generate dynamic page content.

• PHP is a part of the LAMP platform which is used in Facebook and Yahoo.

• Platforms such as Joomla, WordPress and Drupal use PHP language.

• What are the features of PHP:
o It is very easy to learn (so simple that just some codes are embedded in HTML)
o is free and opensource.
o It can be used in all major operating systems and web servers.

When and who started PHP?
PHP was released in 1995 as a server-side scripting language, which was processed in the server so that it could become a website in plain HTML.

Full knowledge of SQL (Structured Query Language)
SQL is a database query language (it is not a development language) which allows adding, accessing and managing content to the database properly. It is a language that allows programmers to perform a common acronym CRUD (Create; Read; Update; Delete) in a database.

Who uses SQL?
• Professions and Industries:
o SQL server developers, database testers, software developers, database administrators
o It is also used in many different industries such as Information Technology, Engineering, Design, Management, Professional Servers, Business and Finance.

• Major Organizations Where They Are Used: SQL is used by many companies and organizations to gather data. This includes many such as Robert Half Technology, Nigel Frank, CyberCoders and UnitedHealthcare etc.

• Specializations where SQL is used the most: in Data Analysis and Big Data Mining.

Why is it more important to learn SQL?
SQL interacts with the backend database in the web application. It is also called “de facto standard” database language, which is used according to a conjunction with other programming languages. SQL programs are implemented by businesses and organizations in a way that allows access and manipulation of information stored in databases.

• Relational database management systems that use SQL include MySQL (by Oracle), Sybase, Microsoft SQL Server and others.

• What are the features of SQL:
o Its Syntax is very simple.
o It is free and easily accessible.

When and who started SQL?
SQL was developed at the IBM Research Center in 1974 and its original name was SEQUEL. Its first commercial version was introduced by ORACLE in 1979.

Conclusion
I hope that you must have liked my article What is Computer Programming (What is Programming in Hindi). It has always been my endeavor to provide complete information to the readers about what programming is, so that they do not have to search any other sites or internet in the context of that article.