What is Ethernet and what are the types?


Ethernet What is Ethernet and what are the types?

Ethernet is pronounced “ether net”. This is a Local Area Network Technology. With the help of this technology, computers and networking devices are interconnected and information is shared. Like it is done in office, in college, in school. “Ethernet” is the protocol of the data link layer of the TCP / IP stack. With the help of this Ethernet technology, different computers in the LAN are able to share information among themselves. This protocol means the work of Ethernet, in which format the information will be transmitted. As if he could get information from one computer to another in a LAN without any error.

Ethernet provides communication of information between networking devices in LAN. Let us take a simple example to explain this to you better. Like your computer LAB. Where Ethernet cable means all computers are connected to each other only with the help of twisted pair cable. But the information that you have reaches your computer, the name of that technology is Ethernet. Which is also called Ethernet protocol. By the way, you must know that the OSI Network Model has 7 layers, out of which “Ethernet” works in both the data link layer and the “physical layer”.

Ethernet uses two types of units in data transmission, first Frame and second Packet (like you weigh rice in packets, you weigh it in kilograms, and also in tons, in the same way, both in data frame and packet form network passes by). The frame is not only taken with the Payload but it is also taken along with the MAC Address. MAC address is the address of the computer, such that it can receive the address of the Sender and Receiver computers.

History of Ethernet

Initially Ethernet was called Alto Aloha Network. The name of the company that makes it is Xerox PARC. Which was invented by Robert Metcalfe in 1973, along with some other people. This was the first network that used CSMA/CD (Carrier Sense Multiple Access/ Collision Detection) technology. Ethernet has been the fastest and most reliable network ever since. Which is present everywhere till now. By the year 1980, it was being used in every corner of the world.

Ethernet used to run at a maximum speed of 10 Mega bits per second in the beginning. After that, due to the changing technology, it started working at the speed of 100Mbps, which was called Fast Ethernet. Later 1000Mbps which was called Gigabit Ethernet and now the speed is up to 10 Gigabit Ethernet. Which is now the fastest of the door. Generally, the length of Ethernet cable is 100 meters, but with the help of this cable, we can easily connect school, college and office.

What components are needed for Ethernet network?

  • Ethernet Cable
  • Ethernet HUB
  • Crossover Cable
  • Router

1) Ethernet Cable
With the help of Ethernet cable, two or more computers can be connected together. Through which data or information can come and go. Only one type of Ethernet cable is used in a LAN network. Examples of these cables are twisted pair cable and fiber optics cable.

2) Ethernet HUB
This is a networking device through which we can connect the cables (wires) of all the computers. Hub connects all the computers in a network to Apsa. There are many Ethernet ports in a hub. In which these cables are connected.

3) Crossover Cable
We can use this cable in lieu of Ethernet cable. It also has the same function, when we connect two or more computers in apasa, then it is used.

4) Router
You must have heard its name whenever we talk about wifi network. This word is definitely heard. Router is also a networking device through which the data coming from the network reaches the computer. And the data from the computer goes to the other network. This device Route means determines the route. By now you know what Ethernet is. Now you will know how many types they are and what they are.

Types of Ethernet Network

1. Ethernet
You have come to know that Ethernet is a LAN technology. A Standard Ethernet network works at 10 megabits per second. The performance of this technology is quite good because it is cheap and gives high speed data transmission. We can easily install it. This is a Universal LAN network technology of all the computers in the world. 10BASE-T is an example of this Ethernet technology. It supports all protocols, so it is special.


The Institute for Electrical and Electric Engineering created an Ethernet standard called IEEE Standard 802.3. Some rules were made in this standard so that all Ethernet networks can be easily configured. Along with this, with the help of this RULE, all the elements of this network can interact with each other. and be able to communicate.

2. Fast Ethernent
Gradually the next standard of Ethernet emerged. Which was called Ethernet Standard IEEE 802.3u. Its transmission speed is around 10 Mbps to 100 Mbps. Just some minor changes were made in the Ethernet cable and Fast Ethernet was created. The throughput of fast Ethernet is very good in the case of “videos, multimedia, graphics, Internet”. In this the mechanism of error detection and correctoin has been used.

There are 3 types of Fast Ethernet: 100BASE-XT It is used with Level 5 UTP (Unshielded Twisted Pair) cable. 100BASE-FX is used with a fiber optics cable. 100BASE-T4 which uses 2 EXTRA wires. It is used with level 3 UTP. 100BASE-TX which is the very popular Fast Ethernet Standard.

If you want to configure 100BASE-T by changing the already existing 10BASE-T Ethernet. So it is very important for you to assess some things. Like how many users are there, and what hardware is needed. Now if we talk further, Gigabit Ethernet which is the next technology of the world. Which promises to give better data speed than Fast Ethernet. So let’s know about it.

3. Gigabit Ethernet
To use Multimedia and Voice Over IP (VoIP), a fast running network was required. Gigabit Ethernet was created to achieve this speed. It is called “Ethernet-over-Copper” 1000BASE-T, 1000BASE-SX, 1000BASE-LX, and GigE are all examples of this. This is set out in the IEEE 802.3z Standard. In recent times, it works like a reed bone of many companies. It is 10 times faster than 100BASE-T.

We can put existing 10 and 100 Mbps cards in Gigabit Ethernet. With the help of which we can interconnect switches, routers and servers and increase performance. If we look from the top layer of the data link layer, then Gigabit will look similar to other Ethernet. And its implementation is also the same. The important difference between both Ethernet means fast and Gigabit is just this. Supports Gigabit Ethernet full duplex and the data rate is also very good.

4. 10 Gigabit Ethernet
This is the fastest and most modern Ethernet standard. Which comes in IEEE 802.3ae version. Talking about its data transfer rate, it works on 10 Gbps. It is 10 times faster than the earlier Gigabit Ethernet.

Unlike other Ethernet, it works completely on optical fiber cable connection. This is quite different from the standard LAN design as it transmits the data to all the nodes in the broadcast meaning. Till now it has not got approval of commercial standard. Because this is completely new. And by the way, its media type is given in the table below.

You can easily understand everything by looking at the table. Some information is given such as IEEE Standard, data rate, media type and Maximum Distance.