A computer is a machine that processes instructions to calculate data, store and manage information. Computers are made up of hardware and software. The word computer is derived from the Latin word “computare”. It means to calculate or to calculate.
It mainly has three functions. Taking the first data which we also call Input. The second task is to process that data and then the task is to show that processed data which is also called Output.
Input Data → Processing → Output Data
Charles Babbage is said to be the father of the modern computer. Because he was the first to design the mechanical computer, which is also known as the Analytical Engine. In this, data was inserted with the help of punch card.
So we can call a computer such an advanced electronic device that takes raw data from the user as input. Then processes that data through a program (set of instruction) and publishes the final result as Output. It processes both numerical and non numerical (arithmetic and logical) calculations.
What is the full form of computer?
Technically there is no full form of computer. Still there is an imaginary full form of computer,
C – Commonly
O – Operated
M – Machine
P – Particularly
U – Used for
T – Technical and
E – Educational
R – Research
How do computers run?
For some people, using a computer can be difficult to understand. This section will help you to understand how to operate your computer smoothly.
You must be wondering that how can you use keyboard and mouse at the same time? Well, it’s not that complicated! Here are some instructions on how to do it:
Move the mouse pointer over the icon or letter you want to click.
Press and hold the left mouse button.
Drag the pointer to where you want to click.
Release the left mouse button when you reach the desired destination.
history of computer
It cannot be properly proved that since when the development of computer started. But officially the development of computer has been classified according to the generation. These are mainly divided into 5 parts.
When it comes to the generation of the computer, it means that the generations of the computer in Hindi. As the computer developed, they were divided into different generations so that it is easy to understand them properly.
1. First Generation of Computer – 1940-1956 “Vacuum Tubes”
The first generation computers used vacuum tubes for circuitry and magnetic drums for memory. They used to be quite big in size. A lot of power was used to run them.
Being very large, it also had a lot of heat problem, due to which it used to malfunction many times. Machine language was used in these. For example, UNIVAC and ENIAC computers.
2. Second Generation of Computer – 1956-1963 “Transistors”
In second generation computers, transistors replaced vacuum tubes. Transistors took up very little space, were smaller, were faster, were cheaper and were more energy efficient. They used to generate less heat than the first generation computers but still there was still a problem of heat in it.
In this, high level programming languages like COBOL and FORTRAN were used.
3. Third Generation of Computers – 1964-1971 “Integrated Circuits”
Integrated Circuit was used for the first time in third generation computers. In which the transistors were small and inserted inside the silicon chip, which is called Semi Conductor. It benefited from this that the processing capacity of the computer increased to a great extent.
Monitors, keyboards and operating systems were used for the first time to make computers of this generation more user friendly. It was launched in the market for the first time.
4. Fourth Generation of Computers – 1971-1985 “Microprocessors”
The specialty of the fourth generation is that Microprocessor was used in it. Due to which thousands of Integrated Circuits were embedded in a single silicon chip. This made it very easy to reduce the size of the machine.
The use of microprocessor increased the efficiency of the computer even more. This very work was able to do very big calculations in Samaya.
5. Fifth Generation of Computer – 1985-present “Artificial Intelligence”
Fifth generation is of today’s era where Artificial Intelligence has established its dominance. Now many advanced techniques like new technology like Speech recognition, Parallel Processing, Quantum Calculation are coming into use.
This is a generation where due to the artificial intelligence of the computer, the ability to take decisions on its own has come. Gradually, all its work will be automated.
Who invented computer?
Father Of Computer Charles Babbage
Who is called the father of modern computer? In this way, many people have contributed in this computing field. But out of all this, Charles Babage contributes more. Because he was the first to come out with the Analytical Engine in 1837.
The concept of ALU, Basic Flow Control and Integrated Memory was implemented in this engine. Based on this model, today’s computer was designed. That is why his contribution is the highest. That is why he is also known as the father of computer.
definition of computer
There are many components of any modern digital computer but some of them are very important like Input Device, Output Device, CPU (Central Processing Unit), Mass Storage Device and Memory.
accepts data input
processes data processing
How does computer work?
Input (Data): Input is the step in which raw information is inserted into the computer using an input device. It can be a letter, picture or even a video.
Process: The data inputted during the process is processed according to the instruction. This is completely internal process.
Output: The data that has already been processed during the output is shown as the result. And if we want, we can save this result and keep it in memory for future use.
labeled diagram of basic units of computer
Computer Components in Hindi
main parts of computer
If you have ever seen inside which computer case, then you must have found that there are many small components inside, they look very complicated, but they are not that complicated in reality. Now I will give you some information about these components.
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The main circuit board of any computer is called the motherboard. It looks like a thin plate but it is holding many things. Such as CPU, memory, connectors for hard drives and optical drives, expansion cards to control video and audio, as well as connection to all the ports of the computer. If seen, the motherboard is directly or in direct connected with all the parts of the computer.
Do you know what is Central Processing Unit ie CPU? This is also called. It is found in the motherboard inside the computer case. It is also called the brain of the computer. It is keeping an eye on all the activities within a computer. The higher the speed of a processor, the sooner it will be able to do processing.
We also know RAM as Random Acess Memory. This is the short term memory of the system. Whenever the computer does some calculations, it temporarily saves that result in RAM. If the computer is turned off, this data is also lost. If we are writing a document, then to avoid it being destroyed, we should save our data in between. By saving, if the data is saved in the hard drive, then it can stay for a long time.
RAM is measured in megabytes (MB) or gigabytes (GB). The more RAM we have, the better it is for us.
Hard Drive is the component where software, documents and other files are saved. In this, the data is stored for a long time.
Power Supply Unit
The job of the power supply unit is to take power from the main power supply and supply it to other components as per the requirement.
All computers have Expansion Slots so that we can add an Expansion Card in the future. These are also called PCI (Peripheral Components Interconnect) cards. But today’s motherboard has many slots already built in. Names of some expansion cards that we can use to update old computers.
Bluetooth Card (Adapter)
If you are ever opening things inside the computer, then you should first remove the plug from the main socket.
computer hardware and software
We can call computer hardware any such physical device that we use in our computer, whereas computer software means the collection of codes that we install in the hard drive of our machine to run the hardware.
For example, the computer monitor that we use to navigate, the mouse that we use to navigate, these are all computer hardware. Wherein the Internet Browser from which we visit the website, and the Operating System in which that Internet Browser runs. We call such things software.
We can say that a computer is a combination of software and hardware, both have similar roles, both can do any work together.
Types of Computer – Types of Computer in Hindi
Whenever we ever hear the use of the word computer, then only the picture of personal computer comes in our mind. Let me tell you people that there are many types of computers. Comes in various Shapes and Sizes. We use them as per the need, such as ATM to withdraw money, Scanner to scan a barcode, Calculator to do any big calculation. These are all different types of computers.
Many people use desktop computers for their homes, schools and for their personal work. They are designed in such a way that we can keep them on our desk. They have many parts like Monitor, Keyboard, Mouse, Computer Case.
You must have known about laptops which are battery powered, they are very portable so that they can be taken anywhere and anytime.
Now let’s talk about the tablet, which we also call handheld computer because it can be easily held in the hands.
It does not have keyboard and mouse, just a touch sensitive screen which is used for typing and navigation. Example- iPad.
A server is some type of computer that we use to exchange information. For example, whenever we search for something on the Internet, all those things are stored in the server itself.
other types of computers
Let us now know what are other types of computers.
Smartphone: When the Internet is enabled in a normal cell phone, we can do many things using it, then such a cell phone is called a smartphone.
Wearable: Wearable is a general term for a group of technology devices – including fitness trackers and smartwatches – that are designed to be worn throughout the day. These devices are often called wearables.
Game Console: This game console is also a special type of computer that you use to play video games on your TV.
TV: TV is also a type of computer which now includes many applications or apps that convert it into Smart TV. At the same time, you can now stream videos from the Internet directly on your TV.
Use of Computer – Application of Computer in Hindi
Where is the computer used? If seen, we have been using computers everywhere in our lives and will continue to do so. It has become like a part of us. I have written some of its uses below for your information.
Use of computer in the field of education: They have the biggest hand in education, if a student wants information about something, then this information becomes available to him within a few minutes, with the help of this. Research has shown that with the help of computers, the learning performance of any student has increased significantly. Nowadays, studying can be done with the help of online classes while sitting at home.
Health and Medicine: This is a boon for health and medicine. With the help of this, the treatment of patients is done very easily nowadays. Nowadays everything has become digital, due to which the disease is easily known and its treatment is also possible accordingly. This has also made operations easier.
Use of computer in the field of science: This is the gift of science itself. This makes research very easy. Nowadays a new trend is going on which is also called Collaboratory, so that all the scientists of the world can work together, it does not matter from which country you are present in the country.
Business: It has a huge hand in business to increase productivity and competitiveness. It is mainly used in Marketing, Retailing, Banking, Stock Trading. Due to all things being digital here, its processing has become very fast. And nowadays more importance is being given to Cashless Transaction.
Recreation and Entertainment: It has become a new haven for entertainment, you talk about anything like movies, sports or resturants, they are used everywhere.
Government: Nowadays the government is also giving more focus on their use. If we talk about Traffic, Tourism, Information & Broadcasting, Education, Aviation, our work has become very easy due to their use in all places.
Defense: Their use in the army has also increased to a great extent. With the help of which now our army has become more powerful. Because nowadays everything is controlled with the help of computer.
There are many places where we use it according to our need.
benefits of computer
By the way, it would not be wrong at all to say that computer has made the life of us human beings very easy with the help of its incredible speed, accuracy and storage.
With this, people can save anything whenever they want and can search for anything easily. We can say that computer is a very versatile machine because it is very flexible in doing its jobs.
But despite this, we can also say that the computer is a very versatile machine because it is very flexible in doing its work, while these machines also have some important advantages and disadvantages.
Let us know about them.
Multitasking is a great advantage of computer. In this, a person can easily calculate multiple tasks, multiple operations, numerical problems in a few seconds. Computer can easily calculate in trillion of instructions per second.
Now it is no longer just a calculating device. Now it has become a very important part of our life.
Its great advantage is its high speed, which helps it to complete any task, that too in a very short time. In this, almost all the operations can be done immediately, otherwise it would take a lot of time to do them.
3. Cost / Stores a large amount of data
It is a low cost solution. Because in this a person can save a large amount of data in a low budget. Using a centralized database, a very high quantity of information can be stored, so that the cost can be earned to a great extent.
These computers are very accurate about their calculations, the chances of making a mistake in them are negligible.
5. Data Security
Protecting digital data is called data security. Computer protects our digital data from unauthorized users such as cyberattack or access attack.
disadvantages of computer
Now let us know about some disadvantages of computer.
1. Virus and Hacking Attacks
Virus is a destructive program and hacking is called that unauthorized access in which the owner does not know about you.
These Viruses can be easily spread through email attachment, sometimes also from USB, or they can be accessed to your computer from any infected websites.
Whereas once it reaches your computer then it ruins your computer.
2. Online Cyber Crimes
Computers and networks are used to do these online cyber-crimes. Whereas Cyberstalking and Identity theft also come under these online cyber-crimes.
3. Reduction in employment opportunity
Since the computer is capable of doing many tasks simultaneously, there is a huge loss of employment opportunity.
Therefore, from the banking sector to any governmental sectors, you see that all computers are given more importance in the place of people. So unemployment is only increasing.
Talking about the second disadvantage, then it does not have IQ, it totally depends on the users, it has no feeling, it cannot take any decision by itself.
future of computer
By the way, day by day a lot of technological changes are coming in the computer. Day by day it is becoming more affordable and with more performance and more capacity. As the need of the people increases, there will be more changes in it. Earlier it was of the size of a house, now it is getting absorbed in our hands.
There will come a time when it will be controlled by our mind. Nowadays scientists are doing more research on Optical Computer, DNA Computer, Neural Computer and Quantum Computer. Along with this, a lot of attention is also being paid to Artificial Intelligence so that it can do its work smoothly on its own.